theories of how and why performance anxiety affects musicians, evaluating the
effectiveness of different coping strategies, and suggesting ways in which
future research might increase understanding of the experience of performing.
Give concrete examples for the phenomena that you discuss wherever possible.
If you were to ask most people
what makes them different from a computer, they would probably answer emotion
- the ability to feel things. Human beings do not act like machines. However,
not all our emotions are positive. Some like anger and fear can be quite
destructive. They fill us with tensions -especially in the muscles. This
tension is caused by an overload of Adrenalin, which enters the bloodstream
whenever you face a stressful situation. It causes hyper-alertness. In part,
this reaction is a survival response. It is known as the 'fight or flight
Mostly we only use a small
amount of our potential strength and energy to live, but during the 'fight or
flight reaction', the body changes the way it operates physically in order to
maximise the strength and energy. This reaction is a very powerful response
that serves an important survival function, though it is not quite as helpful
when we are faced with non-physical threats such as the fear of making
mistakes and performing in public. Because these actions do not require
physical action (such as running from a threat), we do not use nor absorb the
energy the body has given us and we quickly become stressed. In a performing
situation this build up of adrenalin causes symptoms like shaking, excessive
sweating and hyperventilation, and interferes with the performance.
Unfortunately human pride can
be so strong that fear of public humiliation or disgrace often produces the
same degree of emotional panic as meeting a tiger. The general name given for
this kind of physical state is arousal. Long-term arousal can affect our
physical health. It is called stress and is one of the most studied areas of
psychology because it affects so many different people in so very different
ways. Long-term stress suppresses the body's immune system, makes us very
jumpy and alert to potential threats. It also interferes with judgement so
that we are less likely to make sensible, rational decisions or to appraise
what is going on realistically. So what is anxiety or performance anxiety? How
do we cope with it as performers and how can we help avoid anxiety? These are
questions I will endeavour to answer in the course of this essay.
The feeling of anxiety is very
common. Some people refer to it as nerves and everyone, musician or
non-musician, has experienced anxiety at one time or another. The feeling of
general uneasiness, a sense of foreboding and a feeling of tension is
something that happens in our day-to-day lives.
Anxiety has both a
physiological and a psychological aspect and it is the psychological aspect
that affects the way we interpret sensations (Clarke et al 2000). We can
become anxious in situations merely because we perceive a threat even where
there is none. William James, an early psychologist, suggested that all human
emotions actually come from our perception of the situation/condition we are
in (Hayes 1999): we do not weep because we feel sorrow: we feel sorrow because
we weep. Further studies (Schachter and Singer as cited in Hayes 1999)
concluded that although it is our awareness of the situation that produces the
emotion we actually feel, it is our physical condition which influences how
strongly we actually feel it. In a performance situation, we don't feel
anxious because of performing, the situation is anxious because of the way we
feel. This describes Pathological anxiety mentioned presently.
Several types of clinical
anxiety have been identified:
- Reactive anxiety results from inadequate
- Adaptive anxiety is when the body adapts to a
threatening situation by increasing our state of arousal. This means that
a certain amount of anxiety may in fact improve performance and I will
look into this shortly.
- Maladaptive anxiety is where the anxiety
takes over and has a negative effect.
- Pathological anxiety is when arousal occurs
in situations where we can't identify what we are afraid of. Either that
or we know we can't be harmed but still focus on feelings of anxiety.
So, what is performance Anxiety?
There are three qualities that
a successful performer must have: a) a technical control of their instrument,
b) good taste in using this technique musically and artistically and c) the
courage to do this in front of an audience. There are few activities that can
produce tension and anxiety as quickly and as thoroughly as performing in
Most performers have
experienced performance anxiety in some form and to various degrees. This fear
may be experienced while preparing for a performance, for days or even weeks
before hand, and not just while performing. It can be experienced in the
present (stage fright) as apprehension (fear of what could happen) and arousal
(anticipation). Performance anxiety is no different from general anxiety.
Feelings of fear and apprehension are accompanied by increased and prolonged
physiological arousal. Severe anxiety is where the arousal is too high for
optimal performance. This arousal may be normal and temporary, or abnormal and
long lasting and symptoms can be cognitive, behavioural and physiological.
Research (Steptoe 1989) shows that the processes underlying musical
performance anxiety indicate that cognitive, behavioural and physiological
factors are involved.
Physiological reactions to
stress and anxiety include difficulty concentrating, loss of appetite,
increased heart rate, and shortness of breath, dizziness, butterflies, shaking
knees, shaking hands and sweaty palms. Generally the physiological symptoms
are part of the fight or flight reflex. Measurements taken during studies of
performance anxiety also showed raised levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline
in the urine and this causes the hyper-alertness mentioned previously. This
indicates activation of the nervous system (Deutsch 1999) and these
physiological reactions interfere with performing by making it difficult to
control finger actions and breathing.
Cognitive symptoms of anxiety
include fear of making mistakes and feelings of inadequacy and worrying about
things happening. Behavioural symptoms are not being able to do things, which
normally happen naturally.
The three components of
performance anxiety (physiological, cognitive and behavioural as mentioned
previously) are the same as in general anxiety and are not always co-related
(Lehrer in Grindea 1995). Sometimes the symptoms of performance anxiety come
from one group and at other times all three. Interestingly, performance
anxiety seems to affect more females than males (Deutsch 1999). Abel et al
(1990) puts this down to the theory that males are less able to express their
feelings than females.
Levels of performance anxiety
vary considerably between musicians, as do the effects that anxiety has on
their performances. Age seems to be significant in the matter of performance
anxiety suggesting that as they get older, professional musicians are more
able to cope with stress (Clarke et al. 2000). The development of strategies
for coping may increase with age and experience. Inability to communicate is
usually not due to lack of desire or lack of ability or talent but is usually
the result of physical tension, flawed mental attitudes and social pressures.
The one thing that is not clear is whether physical tensions cause the flawed
mental attitudes or do flawed mental attitudes cause the physical tensions?
Further research may shed light on this.
transactional model of stress suggests that anxiety occurs when an individual
believes that they do not have the ability to handle the demands of a
situation (Reactive anxiety). Studies have indicated that high levels of
anxiety are related to low levels of confidence (Abel et al 1990). Mastery of task and anxiety are related. Research has found that if the
task is simple or well learned so that the correct responses are dominant,
then an audience enhances task performances (Zajonc as cited in Lloyd &
Mayes 1999). If the task is poorly learned such that incorrect responses are
likely to be dominant, then an audience inhibits task performance. Therefore
the general effect of an audience is to enhance the likelihood of dominant
responses. The argument therefore is that the presence of others increases
drive and thereby enhances the performance of well-learned tasks and inhibits
the performance of poorly learned tasks.
Picard (1999) states that
literature on Performance Anxiety is contradictory. Some research stresses
Performance Anxiety's detrimental effects while others deal with the positive
effects but most research so far on the causes of anxiety, has focused on
brain processes and psychological factors such as cognitive processes and
learning processes. From the earliest work on anxiety, researchers have
consistently reported a negative correlation between high levels of anxiety
and achievement. The effects of anxiety on achievement are quite clear.
Anxiety can be both the cause and effect of failure. Performers play badly
because they are anxious and their poor performance increases their anxiety.
But it is suggested that some
anxiety is good for us as performers (Adaptive anxiety). It may actually help
us to perform better in some situations (Hallam 1998), and while anxiety can
be negative, musicians tend to respond to anxiety rather than be affected by
it - indeed many performers argue that they need to be aroused in order to
perform well (Steptoe 1989) and the Yerkes-Dodson law (Eysenck 1998) states
that performance is enhanced with mild levels of anxiety.
However performance begins to
suffer if the anxiety becomes too great (Maladaptive anxiety). Experience of
traumatic events producing anxiety has a long history in psychology. One bad
experience of performing leads to another. The experience becomes internalised
through a process of conditioning and so the fear is reproduced in later
situations. Anxiety becomes a response to something that may happen and not a
response to something that does happen. This is the Catastrophe Theory and it
was originally a mathematical model (Hardy & Parfitt 1991). The 'vicious
circle' becomes possible where the perception of mistakes leads to the
increase of anxiety, leading to more mistakes until the performance collapses.
Anxiety and stress may also affect the self-reflective capacity that we as
human beings have (Gross 1995). This in turn may influence self-esteem and
faith in one's ability, which may also increase the anxiety, felt, and
increases the likelihood of pathological anxiety developing.
So, why is anxiety so common -
particularly since it is an unpleasant experience? Like most psychological
disorders, general anxiety tends to run in families. Torgerson (as cited in
Eysenck 1998) found that anxiety states were around twice as common in close
relatives. His evidence from twin studies suggested that there might be a
genetic basis to general anxiety but it did not appear to be a strong
influence. Kemp (1996) claims that performance anxiety is most likely to
affect those who have a tendency to neuroticism and that musicians have more
anxious, neurotic personalities than most of the general population. It is
difficult though, to assess whether this is because a nervous disposition
helps you become a musician or if musical performance leads to anxiety. So is
anxiety a personality trait shared by those who become musicians or is there
something about performing that leads to pathological anxiety? In other words
is anxiety a 'trait' (due to personality) or is it a 'state' (due to the
This is a difficult question to
answer. Steptoe, A. & Fidler, H. (1987) found that there was a direct
correlation between performance anxiety and neuroticism (a personality
'trait') leading us to believe that there may be a connection between
personality and performance anxiety. Eysenck (Robinson 2000) also proposed
that personality was made up of many traits and that these traits give rise to
tendencies to behave in particular ways, including being anxious. In addition,
Kemp (1996) thinks that it is important to make a distinction between 'trait'
anxiety, (your tendency to be anxious) and 'state' anxiety (Which is when a
person's anxiety levels are affected by a situation.). However in reality the
difference between 'state' and 'trait' is not as clear-cut. A person's
tendency to anxiety will influence the level of response they give to a
situation but in fact, the situation may be stressful and the performer will
react to it and not their innate tendency to be anxious. Some performers are
anxious in many situations while some situations are especially anxiety
provoking. (State anxiety) Skinner's belief (Robinson 2000) was that our
environment determined our behaviour and we should also be aware that the mere
physical presence of some people could have an influence on thoughts, feelings
and actions whether or not the person is involved with the performer as
another group member.
Many researchers (e.g. Hamann
& Sobaje 1983) believe that far from being a negative influence, 'State'
anxiety (When a person's anxiety levels are affected by a situation) has
motivational and drive properties that are of benefit to performance. Kemp
(1996) also thinks anxiety can be motivational. Arousal can be enhanced by
anxiety and therefore heightens the degrees of sensitivity and imagination. In
other words, a small amount of anxiety is not only normal but also it is
helpful and necessary to perform tasks more efficiently. Hamann and Sobaje
(1983) showed that levels of 'state' anxiety could actually assist a
performance. Clearly this correlates with research (Steptoe 1989 and Hallam
1998) and the Yerkes-Dodson law (Eysenck 1998) as mentioned before.
(1982) also managed to demonstrate a relationship between trait and state
anxiety: performers with high trait anxiety experienced greater increases in
state anxiety than those with lower trait anxiety. Moreover, Hamann found that
students who had a high level of mastery on their instrument benefited more
from the high levels of state anxiety then those who shared the same levels of
trait anxiety but possessed low mastery. This confirms Zajonc's research (as cited in Lloyd & Mayes
1999) mentioned previously, but clearly there is still opportunity for more
the causes of anxiety can be many different things and the factors that may contribute to performance anxiety are many: too much
practise, too little practise (Reactive anxiety) fear of illness, other
people's expectations, the pursuit of technical perfection, performing
('state' and pathological anxiety) and a predisposed tendency to anxiety.
(Trait anxiety and maladaptive anxiety) Identifying the cause of your anxiety
is important and identifying which group your symptoms come from is
significant in deciding which 'therapy' to pursue. Anxiety
is an intrinsic part of human nature and a lot of research has been focused on
how to harness stress and turn it into a positive force. If you learn why
something happens, it usually becomes less frightening, (Jones 2000) but
unfortunately tension plays a disproportionate part of everyday life for many
performing artists and they have to find a way to cope.
The obvious cure is avoidance of what gives you
anxiety. This is not an option for most musicians and luckily there are
countless ways of coping with the stress of performing. Sometimes advice on
how to cope with stress seems far removed from the special nature of the
situations musicians are in. But in fact the physical and mental
manifestations of nerves and anxiety are the same for everyone no matter what
activity they are involved in. The problem for music performers is that
anxiety is usually counter-productive to the task at hand. There are several
'coping strategies' that can be employed in an attempt to control performance
anxiety. For instance there are relaxation techniques and alternative
medicines as well as self-help (such as diet), medication, counselling,
therapy and use of combinations of treatments.
suggests changes in diet as a means of calming anxiety prior to a performance.
It is believed, for example, that bananas act as a natural beta-blocker.
Others suggest medication and advocate the use of drugs like tranquillisers,
beta-blockers and corticosteroids. These are more likely to help the
physiological symptoms because Beta-blockers block the body's response to
adrenaline and corticosteroids work by reducing inflammation through
suppression of the immune responses (Dr. Sarah Smith, personal communication).
As mentioned previously, Adrenalin enters the bloodstream whenever you face a
stressful situation. It causes hyper-alertness, which can add to performance
(as already discussed) but if present in too great amounts can cause all the
symptoms mentioned previously with regard to performance anxiety. Drugs stop
this from happening. While it is true that drugs can be effective in the
treatment of performance anxiety, it can only ever be a short-term solution to
the problem due to the addictive nature of the drugs involved - even though
they are commonly prescribed for performance anxiety. For the same reasons,
alcohol is not the answer either.
make a distinction between two basic types of coping strategy - problem
focused strategy and emotion focused strategy (Robinson 2000) Problem focused
strategy attempts to deal with those aspects of the environment that are
responsible for the stress and anxiety experienced. (That is, dealing directly
with the stressful situation.) Emotion focused strategy attempts to change the
way a person thinks about a stressful situation. Sufferers would try to deal
with the emotional consequences of the stress rather than try to change the
situation. Often an active problem focused strategy is more effective in
dealing with anxiety (Robinson 2000) probably because changing the perception
of the situation changes the way a person thinks anyway.
is thought that performance anxiety represents a particularly appropriate
therapeutic target for cognitive-behavioural therapy (Kendrick et al 1982).
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a major approach involved in the treatment of
anxiety. It draws on methods from both behavioural and cognitive approaches.
therapies assume that anxiety is a learned or conditioned response to a
particular situation and the therapy used attempts to break the link between
the situation and response. A sufferer may be exposed to the feared situation
in increasing amounts while employing a relaxation technique. Behaviour
therapy however, is frowned upon within the world of psychotherapists because,
despite being useful, it is seen as manipulative and humiliating (Gross 1995).
therapies assume that distortions in a person's thoughts and beliefs can lead
to a number of problems including anxiety. Becoming aware of negative thoughts
and trying to substitute them with more positive thoughts is part of the
treatment used in cognitive-behavioural therapy (Steptoe & Fidler 1987).
Mentally picturing the situation helps some people overcome their anxiety.
Coping imagery can be useful too. If you can anticipate what
might go wrong
and come up with scenarios where you cope then you are less likely to feel
apprehensive. Imagination is a powerful tool and must not be underestimated.
both these methods, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy has proved more effective
than behavioural or cognitive methods alone (Kendrick et al 1982). Changing
both the view of the performing situation and giving positive experiences of
performing can reduce anxiety. Sweeney and Horan (1982) also investigated the
use of combinations of different strategies. Their experiment compared
cue-controlled relaxation and cognitive restructuring and a combination of the
two against a control condition. The combined treatment showed most benefits
corroborating other research.
therapies are used in very similar ways. Systematic desensitisation aims to
gradually replace the response of fear and anxiety with an alternative
response. This was found to be a successful treatment for musicians (Deutsch
1999). Another is behaviour modification, which is specifically aimed at
changing behaviour, and therefore behavioural symptoms, but it is not
concerned with the person's thoughts and feelings. You are more likely to see
positive behaviour if it is rewarded with positive reinforcement. As stated
before, anxiety is accompanied by increased and prolonged physiological
arousal. Basically by inducing people to reattribute their 'arousal' from a
threatening source to a neutral or less threatening one, they can be helped to
function more effectively in settings which induce their anxiety.
you can see, understanding that your mind and body are linked is common to
most therapies used to overcome performance anxiety. Psychodynamic is a term
that encompasses those areas in psychology, which assume we are driven by the
content in our minds. An important idea in the psychodynamic approach is the
view that our childhood experiences have a considerable influence on our
behaviour as adults. This would imply that the reason behind some incidences
of performance anxiety might be some bad experience of performing in the
This method also implies that
teachers can help on the 'shop floor' by not allowing anxiety to become an
issue. This is also in line with Bandura's social learning theory, which
encourages positive observation. Students performing to each other in informal
gatherings can be helpful and will benefit those with signs of performance
anxiety provided that favourable concepts of audiences are fostered. The
younger this is done, the better. Picard (1999) thinks that music educators
should bring students face to face with their fears. Nearly all players,
amateur and professional, suffer from anxiety and there is no need to be
ashamed of it. Other than in an exam scenario, in music performing there is no
pass or fail, only performing as well as you can on the day. Joanna Macgregor
(Jones 2000) believes that the pressure of competition and judgement causes a
lot of anxiety. She was told, "When you perform, it's the most important
thing in the world to you and at the same time it is not important at all.
People are not going to die, the world isn't going to stop turning." If
as a performer you can grasp this, it gives things a sense of proportion.
possible treatment is hypnotherapy. Usually this would consist of sessions of
relaxation, suggestions including breathing, visual imagery and verbal
suggestions linking these images to increased mental control. Hypnotherapy
does appear to help performance anxiety (Stanton 1993) but further research is
needed to compare the effectiveness of hypnotherapy to other therapies
normally used to treat performance anxiety to truly evaluate its usefulness.
Technique has been shown to have some benefits in coping with performance
anxiety (Valentine et al 1995). Many performers also use Yoga, massage,
reflexology, t’ai chi or aikido to help them relax, although complete relaxation is neither possible nor musically appropriate (Gellrich
1991). Other performers advocate homeopathy, either consulting a Homeopath or
using remedies that other performers have recommended.
performers also practise in extreme conditions to simulate the performance
situation. For example, playing after you have run up and down the stairs
simulates breathlessness and playing in really hot conditions can simulate
conditions caused by excessive sweating. The theory behind this bizarre
'practice' based therapy is that having experienced these extremes you will be
more able to cope with them when they occur in a performance situation.
that they do not feel anxious because of under-preparation, there are also
various things a performer can do at the first signs of performance anxiety to
stop the process spiralling till they need professional help. For example, it
is not a good idea for performers to play pieces in public if they have doubts
about their ability to play them. It
may seem like common sense, but making sure that they like the music on their
programme may help. Starting the programme with an easier piece also gives a
chance to warm up properly.
logical advice is often overlooked: Feeling comfortable is important so
performers should avoid wearing clothes or shoes that are uncomfortable.
Thinking about why you play music is helpful. Musicians must try to
communicate and not think about their egos, which sometimes contribute to
anxiety! (Trait anxiety)
On the night, they should allow
lots of time to get to the venue and be relaxed as possible. They must take
time once on stage to make sure that everything is as they want it to be. They
must prepare well in advance - mentally and physically, practise with and
without the accompanist as much as possible. They should get to know their
fellow ensemble players. If they are comfortable with them, then they are less
likely to feel nervous of them or of the situation. They must try going back
to basics and remember that performing is what making music is about. It's
nothing 'big' simply part of their life. The more importance they give it, the
more likely they are to feel anxious about it. This is basically cognitive
therapy and behavioural modification all rolled into one - the performer is in
control of the situation.
Confidence and a sense of
achievement are the best substitutes for fear or anxiety. It is worth
assessing just what the sufferer thinks music making is supposed to be about.
Remember the three Cs and the three Es. The 3 Cs - Concentrate, Competence
and Confidence. If you concentrate when you practise, this will
lead to competence and confidence. The 3 Es - Enthusiasm, Enjoyment
and Entertainment. Your audience want to enjoy the performance.
If they sense the performer is having a good time then that will encourage
them to believe in what the performer is doing.
approaches attempt to help the physiological symptoms of performance anxiety
while others concentrate on the cognitive or behavioural symptoms. Nagel et al
(1989) believed that an approach using combinations of therapies that targeted
all symptoms should be used for the treatment of Performance Anxiety. They
showed in a case study of a pianist that desensitisation, cognitive
restructuring and in vivo performance practice resulted in lower levels of
anxiety. This corroborates the evidence found by Kendrick et al (1982) and
Sweeney and Horan (1982). It would appear that the most successful treatments
are those that combine relaxation training with developing realistic
in which future research might increase understanding
Unfortunately a lot of
statements about performance anxiety are based on speculation and biased
assessment rather than on research results (Hamann 1982). But from a review of
the literature, it would appear that apart from Kemp (1996) there has only
been a little research on the possible correlation between personality types
and performance anxiety. Further research may help music educators to help all
pupils with this aspect of performance and to identify the pupils who need the
most help in this area. Additional research would be helpful to therapists,
psychologists, musicians and educators so that problems could be identified
earlier on by these groups and hence the problem would not spiral out of
also there seems little research on the advantage or disadvantage of age and
experience over performance anxiety. As
mentioned before, as they get older, professional musicians are more able to
cope with stress. (Clarke et al. 2000) But this could be for a variety of
reasons: excessive anxiety may cause people to leave the profession, (And
therefore not be included in statistics) or the development of strategies for
coping may increase with age and experience. There is clearly potential for
research in this area, investigating the roles of age, experience and
is important that self-reported anxiety be studied alongside the physiological
and behavioural components of performance anxiety. Research (Dews &
Williams 1989) suggested that emotional and psychological issues needed more
research. For Example:
- The connection
between self-esteem and the anxiety of performance.
- The role of the
parent and educator.
- The possible role
of certain stresses and specialised counselling.
- The role of
educational institutions in stress and coping.
studies have been involved with reducing anxiety. In these studies researchers
assumed that anxiety decreased the quality of performance. But in reality it
was found that performers with high amounts of formal training performed in a
superior manner in anxious situations. Is there a significant relationship
between performance environment and the performers training? It would be both
interesting and useful to pursue more study in this area. Comparing all the
different therapies may be useful (As suggested by Wilson in Hargreaves and
North 1997). It would help identify the most useful strategies for certain
There is much fascination with
the study of performance anxiety. Performers feel a need to understand this
phenomenon if they are to be in control of their body and instrument in
performance situations. Musicians agree that performing in public stimulates
performance anxiety but how musicians respond varies and that anxiety can help
or hinder depending on the intensity of anxiety felt. Anxiety should be seen
as a helpful warning that alerts us to possible danger and will allow us to
take steps to avoid that which we feel anxious about. Errors made in practice
should be viewed simply as ways not to play and not as mistakes. Everything
must be kept in context. Patience, persistence, self-awareness and the
attitude of self-searching will all help in the control of performance anxiety
(Havas in Grindea 1995).
With emphasis on relaxation,
preparation and self-discovery, anxiety can be controlled. Handling
performance anxiety is as much about your attitude of mind as it is about
practical solutions. There is no more potent cure for performance anxiety than
the knowledge that you can do it. Learning to control our feelings and anxiety
through various techniques of relaxation, therapy and the all-important
preparation of practise can help us as performers to triumph over performance
Abel, J.L. & Larkin, K.T. (1990) Anticipation of Performance Among Musicians: Physiological Arousal, Confidence and State-Anxiety Psychology of Music 18 171-182
Clarke, E., Davidson, J.W., Windsor, W.L., & Pitts, S. (2000) Distance Learning Module: The Psychology of Performance Sheffield: University of Sheffield
Deutsch, D. (1999) The Psychology of Music 2nd Edition London: Academic Press
Dews, C.L.B. & Williams, M.S. (1989) Student Musician's Personality Styles, Stresses and Coping Patterns Psychology of Music 17 37-47
Eysenck, M. (1998) Psychology, an Integrated Approach Harlow: Longman
Gellrich, M. (1991) Concentration and Tension British Journal of Music Education 8 167-179
Grindea, C (1995) Tensions in the Performance of Music London: Kahn & Averill
Gross, R. (1995) Themes, Issues and Debates in Psychology Boldon: Hodder & Stoughton Educational
Hallam, S. (1998) Instrumental Teaching Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers
Hamann, D. L. (1982) An Assessment of Anxiety in Instrumental and Vocal Performances Journal of Research in Music Education 30 77-90
Hamann, D.L. & Sobaje, M. (1983) Anxiety and the College Musician: a study of performance conditions and subject variables Psychology of Music 11 37-50
Hardy, L. & Parfitt, G. (1991) A Catastrophe Model of Anxiety and Performance British Journal of Psychology 82 163-178
Hargreaves, D. & North, A. (1997) The Social Psychology of Music Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hayes, N. (1999) Teach Yourself Psychology London: Hodder and Stoughton
Jones, K. (2000) Keeping Your Nerve London: Faber Music Limited
Kemp, A.E. (1996) The Musical Temperament Oxford: Oxford University Press
Kendrick, M.J., Craig, K.D., Lawson, D.M. & Davidson, P.O. (1982) Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy for Musical-Performance Anxiety Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 50(3) 353-362
Lloyd, P. & Mayes, A. (1999) Introduction to Psychology: An Integrated Approach London: Diamond Books
Nagel, J.J., Himle, D.P. & Papsdorf, J.D. (1989) Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Musical Performance Anxiety Psychology of Music 17 12-21
Picard, A. (1999) Qualitative
Pedagogical Inquiry Into Cognitive Modulation of Performance Anxiety Council
for Research in Music Education Bulletin Spring 1999 62-76
Robinson, D. (2000) 101 Key Ideas - Psychology London: Hodder and Stoughton
Stanton, H.E. (1993) Research Note: Alleviation of Performance Anxiety Through Hypnotherapy Psychology of Music 21 78-82
Steptoe, A. & Fidler, H. (1987) Stage Fright in Orchestral Musicians: a study of cognitive and Behavioural strategies in performance anxiety British Journal of Psychology 78 241-249
Steptoe, A. (1989) Stress, Coping and Stage Fright in Professional Musicians Psychology of Music 17 3-11
Sweeney, G.A. & Horan, J.J. (1982) Separate and combined effects of cue-controlled relaxation and cognitive restructuring in the treatment of musical performance anxiety Journal of Counselling Psychology 29 486-497
Valentine, E.R., Fitzgerald, D.F.P., Gorton, T.L., Hudson, J.A. & Symonds, E.R. (1995) The effect of lessons in the Alexander Technique on Music Performance in high and low stress situations Psychology of Music 23 129-141
Interested? Want to discuss it more?
For free templates.